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Medications

  • Amitraz is a topical solution in the form of a medicated dip, spot-on treatment, or collar used to treat demodectic mange or for the prevention of flea and tick infestations. Common side effects include sedation, incoordination while walking, slow heart rate, gastrointestinal effects, skin irritation, and a temporary high blood sugar. This medication is contraindicated in very young, and used with caution in old, debilitated, diabetic, or small-breeds. While animals may exhibit signs of sedation, contact your veterinary office if your pet cannot be aroused from sleep or if the sedation lasts for more than 72 hours. Amitraz is toxic if swallowed, especially in the form of a collar, so contact your veterinary office immediately if this occurs. If they are not available, follow their directions in contacting an emergency facility.

  • Moxidectin topical is applied to the skin and is commonly used to prevent heartworms and to treat topical and intestinal parasites. It has also been used off label to treat adult heartworms. Side effects are uncommon but may include lethargy, vomiting, uncoordinated walking, anorexia, diarrhea, and itching. It is contraindicated in sick, debilitated, or underweight animals. If you suspect an overdose or an adverse reaction to the medication, call your veterinary office immediately. If they are not available, follow their directions in contacting an emergency facility.

  • Insulin is used on and off label and injected under the skin to treat diabetes, ketoacidosis, and high potassium levels. Side effects may include low or high blood sugar levels, insulin resistance, and skin allergic reactions to the injections. Do not use in pets who are having an episode of low blood sugar levels and do not use pork insulins in pets with a pork allergy. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Mitotane is primarily used to treat Cushing's disease in dogs. It has also been used to treat adrenal gland tumors. Mitotane reduces the amount of cortisone-like hormones produced by the adrenal cortex. These steroids are important for various body functions; however excessive levels of these hormones can cause problems.

  • Hydroxyurea is given by mouth and is used off label to treat certain cancers in cats and dogs. Common side effects include bone marrow suppression, lack of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, mouth and stomach ulcers, loss of toenails and/or hair coat. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it, or in pregnant pets unless absolutely necessary. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Cyclophosphamide is given by mouth or injection and is used off label to treat various cancers such as lymphoma, leukemia, carcinoma, and sarcoma. Common side effects include hair loss and hair coat changes. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it or that cannot be sufficiently monitored during treatment, are pregnant or lactating, have urinary obstruction, infection, bone marrow dysfunction, or have had an episode of blood in the urine that is not associated with a bladder infection. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Chlorambucil is given by mouth and is used off label to treat certain types of cancer and autoimmune diseases. Common side effects include fur loss and changes in hair coat, as well as gastrointestinal upset. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it or other alkylating medications, that have bone marrow disease, have an active infection, or that are pregnant or lactating. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Trilostane is a treatment for hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s Disease) and Alopecia X. It is given by mouth as a capsule, given with food. Common side effects include lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia. It is contraindicated in liver or kidney disease and pregnant animals. If an Addisonian crisis or any other negative reactions occur, call your veterinary office immediately.

  • Butorphanol is a partial opiate agonist/antagonist that is used as an analgesic, pre-anesthetic, antitussive, or antiemetic. The injectable form is used subcutaneously, intramuscularly, or intravenously, and the tablet is given by mouth. Side effects include sedation, ataxia, anorexia, or rarely diarrhea. Caution should be used in pets with liver or kidney disease, Addison’s disease, head trauma, or other CNS dysfunction, or in geriatric or severely debilitated patients.

  • Ephedra is prescribed most often treat breathing problems and is given by mouth. Give as directed by your veterinarian. Side effects include increased heart rate, body temperature, and blood pressure, agitation, restlessness, sleeplessness, nausea, tremors, and vomiting. Do not use in pets that are allergic, pregnant, nursing, are debilitated, elderly or young, or have glaucoma, heart disease, high blood pressure, seizures, diabetes, anxiety, enlarged prostate, liver disease, kidney disease or thyroid disease. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.